Jiang Kui Poem: Slow Song of Yangzhou – 姜夔《扬州慢·淮左名都》

Jiang Kui – 姜夔

扬州慢
姜夔
淳熙丙申至日[1],予过维扬[2]。夜雪初霁,荠麦弥望[3]。入其城则四顾萧条,寒水自碧,暮色渐起,戍角[4]悲吟;予怀怆然,感慨今昔,因自度此曲。千岩老人[5]以为有《黍离》之悲也。
淮左[6]名都,
竹西佳处,
解鞍少驻初程。
过春风十里[7],
尽荠麦青青。
自胡马窥江[8]去后,
废池乔木,
犹厌言兵。
渐黄昏,
清角[9]吹寒,
都在空城。
杜郎俊赏[10],
算而今重到须惊。
纵豆蔻词工[11],
青楼梦好[12],
难赋深情。
二十四桥仍在,
波心荡,
冷月无声。
念桥边红药,
年年知为谁生。

注释:
[1]“淳熙”句:淳熙丙申,即淳熙三年(1176年)。至日,冬至。
[2]维扬:扬州。
[3]“荠麦”句:荠麦,荠菜和麦子。弥望,满眼。
[4]戍角:军中号角。
[5]千岩老人:南宋诗人萧德藻,字东夫,自号千岩老人。姜夔曾跟他学诗,又是他的侄女婿。
[6]淮左:淮东。扬州是宋代淮南东路的首府,故称“淮左名都”。
[7]春风十里:杜牧《赠别》诗:“春风十里扬州路,卷上珠帘总不如。”这里用以借指扬州。
[8]胡马窥江:指1161年金主完颜亮南侵,攻破扬州,直抵长江边的瓜洲渡,到淳熙三年(1176年)姜夔过扬州已十六年。
[9]清角:凄清的号角声。
[10]“杜郎”句:杜郎,杜牧。唐文宗大和七年到九年(834-836年),杜牧在扬州任淮南节度使掌书记。俊赏,俊逸清赏。钟嵘《诗品序》:“近彭城刘士章,俊赏才士。”
[11]豆蔻词工:杜牧《赠别》:“娉娉袅袅十三余,豆蔻梢头二月初。”
[12]青楼梦好:杜牧《遣怀》诗:“十年一觉扬州梦,赢得青楼薄幸名。”

Slow Song of Yangzhou
Jiang Kui
In the famous town east of River Huai
And scenic spot of Bamboo West,
Breaking my journey, I alight for a short rest.
The three-mile splendid road in breeze have I passed by;
It’s now overgrown with wild green wheat and weeds.
Since Northern shore was overrun by Jurchen steeds,
Even the tall trees beside the pond have been war-torn.
As dusk is drawing near,
Cold blows the born;
The empty town looks drear.
The place Du Mu the poet prized,
If he should come again today,
Would render him surprise.
His verse on the cardamon spray
And on sweet dreams in mansions green
Could not express
My deep distress.
The Twenty-four Bridges can still be seen,
But the cold moon floating among
The waves would no more sing a song.
For whom should the peonies near
The bridge grow red from year to year?

注释:
The poet compares the riverside town before and after the Jurchen invasion.

Jiang Kui – 姜夔

《扬州慢·淮左名都》是宋代词人姜夔的词作。此词开头三句点明扬州昔日名满国中的繁华景象,以及自己对传闻中扬州的深情向往;接着二句写映入眼帘的只是无边的荠麦,与昔日盛况截然不同;“自胡马”三句,言明眼前的残败荒凉完全是金兵南侵造成的,在人们心灵上留下不可磨灭的创伤;“渐黄昏”二句,以回荡于整座空城之上的凄凉呜咽的号角声,进一步烘托今日扬州的荒凉落寞。下阕化用杜牧系列诗意,抒写自己哀时伤乱、怀昔感今的情怀。“杜郎”成为词人的化身,词表面是咏史、写古人,更深一层是写己与叹今。全词洗尽铅华,用雅洁洗练的语言,描绘出凄淡空蒙的画面,笔法空灵,寄寓深长,声调低婉,具有清刚峭拔之气势,冷僻幽独之情怀。它既控诉了金朝统治者发动掠夺战争所造成的灾难,又对南宋王朝的偏安政策有所谴责,有一定的积极意义。

“Slow Song of Yangzhou” is a lyric by Jiang Kui of the Song Dynasty. The first three lines of the poem point out the prosperous scenery of Yangzhou in the past, and the deep longing for Yangzhou in the rumors; the next two lines are about the endless capers and wheat, which are very different from the former prosperity. In the second line, the bleak and whining sound of horns echoing over the entire empty city further emphasizes the desolation and desolation of Yangzhou today. In the next section, the poetic meaning of Du Mu’s series is used to express his own feelings of mourning for the times and the chaos of the past and the present. “The lyrics are on the surface about history and the ancients, but on the deeper level they are about oneself and the present. The lyrics are washed out, with elegant and concise language, depicting a bleak and empty picture, with an ethereal writing style, a deep and long message, and a low tone of voice, with a clear and craggy momentum, a cold and secluded sentiment. It not only complains about the disaster caused by the plundering war launched by the rulers of the Jin Dynasty, but also condemns the policy of the Southern Song Dynasty, which has certain positive significance.

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