Tao Yuanming Poems: A Southern Complaint 陶渊明《怨诗楚调示庞主簿邓治中》

怨诗楚调[1]示庞主簿邓治中

天道幽且远,鬼神茫昧然。

结发[2]念善事,俛[3]六九年[4]。

弱冠[5]逢世阻,始室[6]丧其偏。

炎火屡焚如,螟蜮[7]恣[8]中田。

风雨纵横至,收敛不盈廛[9]。

夏日长抱饥,寒夜无被眠。

造[10]夕思鸡鸣,及晨愿乌[11]迁。

在己何怨天,离忧凄目前。

吁嗟身后名,于我若浮烟。

慷慨独悲歌,钟期[12]信[13]为贤。

公元418年,陶渊明54岁,仿照《楚调曲》中《怨诗》的体裁写给自己朋友的一首诗。作品分前后两段,前段14句,诗人从自己半生的艰难遭遇出发,对自古以来众口所说的天道鬼神的存在提出了怀疑。“天道幽且远”指天道冥冥莫测,玄奥深远,暗指鬼神之事渺茫难知。以此开头作为结论,贯穿全段。“弱冠逢世阻”说的是20岁身处乱世,历尽艰难险阻。指明遭遇的开始。天灾人祸,庄稼无收、挨饿受冻,已经陷入绝境。“在己何怨天”说的是这怪自己怨不得天,变相地表现他对当时政治的不平。“慷慨独悲歌,钟期信为贤。”说的是忧情激荡,独自悲伤歌咏,钟子期那样的知音,定会为我感叹!表现了陶渊明在这种极其痛苦难熬的生活中的意志坚定,宁死不屈,如此气节在精神道德上获得了胜利的骄傲与自豪。

注释:

[1]怨诗楚调:即《楚调曲》中的《怨诗行》,载册于汉乐府《相和歌》。庞主簿,庞遵,诗人的朋友,主簿是其官职,主管朝廷簿书。邓治中,其姓名不详,治中是其官职,负责诸曹文书的管理,也是诗人的朋友。

[2]结发:束发,指十五岁。借指青年时期。

[3](mǐn)俛(miǎn):勤奋努力。

[4]六九年:五十四岁。

[5]弱冠:二十岁。

[6]始室:三十岁。

[7]螟(mínɡ)蜮(yù):祸害庄稼的害虫。

[8]恣(zì):肆意迫害。

[9]廛(chán):古时候一户人家所占用的土地。不盈廛:收获的粮食不多。

[10]造:到了。

[11]乌:指太阳。相传日中有三足鸟,故称太阳为金乌。

[12]钟期:即钟子期,春秋时期楚国人,是伯牙的朋友。《列子 汤问》:”伯牙鼓琴,志在高山,钟子期曰:“峨峨然若泰山”;志在流水,曰:“洋洋然若江河”。子期死,伯牙绝弦,以无知音者。”这里用以指庞主簿、邓治中,意思是说他们一定也能像钟子期那样体会到这“悲歌”的含义。

[13]信:的确。

A Southern Complaint

The way to Heaven’s dim and far,

Who knows what gods and spirits are.

At fifteen I learned to do good,

At fifty-four I passed manhood.

While young, I went a rugged way;

My lute-string broke before its day.

The burning sun scorched my fields;

The insects damaged my corn yields.

The wind and rain raged up and down;

I could not reap half I have sown.

Hunger stared me at summer’s height;

Cold bed freezed me in winter night.

At dusk I waited for cocks to crow,

At dawn for the sun to sink low.

Not Heaven but I am to blame;

What e’er I do, I’m still the same.

What matters the fame after death?

It will vanish like smoke or breath.

Alone I pour out plaintive song.

Will connoisseurs listen for long?

《怨诗楚调示庞主簿邓治中》是晋宋之际大诗人陶渊明创作的一首五言诗。此诗分前后两段:前段十四句,诗人从自己半生的艰难遭遇出发,对自古以来众口所说的天道鬼神的存在提出了怀疑;后段共六句,写诗人面对艰难处境的思想活动。全诗以直抒胸臆的手法,述遭遇如泣如诉,抒怀抱凄怆感人,语言浅近凝练,风格淳朴实在,具有很强的艺术感染力。

The poem “A Southern Complaint” is a five-word poem written by Tao Yuanming, a great poet in the Jin and Song dynasties. The poem is divided into two sections: the first section of fourteen lines, the poet from his own half-life of difficult encounters, doubts the existence of the ancient mouths of the gods of heaven; the second section of six lines, the poet faced with a difficult situation of thought activities. The poem is written in a straightforward way, describing the encounter as if sobbing, expressing the pathos of the poet’s feelings, the language is simple and concise, the style is simple and real, with a strong artistic influence.

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