Tao Yuanming Poems: Body, Shadow and Spirit  (Spirit) – 陶渊明《形影神  (三首其三:神释)》

形影神
 (三首其三:神释)

大钧无私力,万理自森著。

人为三才[1]中,岂不以我故?

与君虽异物,生而相依附。

结托既喜同,安得不相语?

三皇[2]大圣人,今复在何处?

彭祖[3]爱永年[4],欲留不得住。

老少同一死,贤愚无复数[5]。

日醉或能忘,将非[6]促龄[7]具[8]?

立善常所欣,谁当为汝誉?

甚念伤吾生,正宜委运[9]去。

纵浪[10]大化[11]中,不喜亦不惧。

应尽便须尽,无[12]复独多虑!

“大钧无私力,万理自森著”指大自然的造化没有偏爱谁,万物都按照自己的规律成长繁衍。而人类能跻身于天地人三才之中,也是因为神的缘故,神说自己与形和影虽然不相同,但生来就互相依附。就像与朋友对话一样说出自己的看法,“三皇大圣人,今复在何处”古时的三皇被称作大圣人,而今他们却在何处?其意在诋斥代表主名教者——影鼓吹的立善留名可以不朽的说法;“彭祖爱永年”意在破除代表主旧自然说者——形的长生求仙与沉湎醉乡的言论;最后提出纵浪大化,随顺自然;“应尽便须尽,无复独多虑”听从老天的安排吧,不必多虑。

这首诗即体现了诗人新自然说的主张,又借神的话批评了代表旧自然说的形和代表名教说的影,可谓妙哉!

注释:

[1]三才:指天、地、人。

[2]三皇:古代传说中的三个帝王,说法不一,通常认为是神农、伏羲、燧人。

[3]彭祖:古代传说中的长寿者,生于夏代,一直活到了周朝,总共八百岁。爱:当是“受”字之讹(é),意思是彭祖享受了八百岁高龄。

[4]永年:长寿。

[5]数:气数,命运。

[6]将非:岂非,难道不是。

[7]促龄:促使人的寿命变短。

[8]具:器具,指酒。

[9]委运:顺遂自然。

[10]纵浪:放任自由,不受拘束。

[11]大化:宇宙,大自然。

[12]无:同“毋”,不要。

Body, Shadow and Spirit
 (Spirit)

Impartial is Heaven’s power high,

All things follow its laws divine.

Man levels up with earth and sky.

Is it not due to power mine?

Different beings as we are.

Still we’re Three united in One.

We live and die under same star,

And know how to end what’s begun.

The three great emperors were sages,

But where can they be found today?

The oldest Peng had lived eight ages,

Bald could not have a longer stay.

Young and old will die in the end;

Wit and fool may have the same fate.

Wine may make you forget, not mend.

Won’t it make death precipitate?

Doing good will gladden your mind.

Who’ll sing after your death your praise?

Do not think of things of such kind,

But follow nature in future days.

Play with rising or ebbing tide

Without pleasure and without fear!

Enjoy sunny as shady side!

Let things appear and disappear!

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