Tao Yuanming Poems: Early Crop in the West Field– 陶渊明《庚戌岁九月中于西田获早稻》

庚戌岁九月中于西田获早稻

人生归有道[1],衣食固[2]其端[3]。

孰是都不营? 而以求自安[4]。

开春理常业[5],岁功聊[6]可观。

晨出肆[7]微勤,日入负[8]耒还。

山中饶[9]霜露,风气亦先寒。

田家岂不苦? 弗获[10]辞此难[11]。

四体诚[12]乃疲,庶[13]无异患[14]干[15]。

盥濯息檐下,斗酒散襟颜。

遥遥沮溺[16]心,千载乃相关。

但愿长如此,躬[17]耕非所叹。

公元410年九月,陶渊明46岁,这是他弃官彭泽令归田躬耕的第6年。在这年秋收后,他以郑重又愉快的心情创作了这首诗。

起笔两句,把传统文化中的“道”,与衣食并举,意义极不寻常。衣食的来源,本是农业生产。“孰是都不营,而以求自安?”诗人认为,人生应以生产劳动、自营衣食为根本。

若为了获得衣食俸禄,而失去独立自由之人格,就宁肯弃官归田。“开春理常业,岁功聊可观。”言语似乎很平淡,但体味起来,其中蕴含着真实、淳厚的欣慰之情。“田家岂不苦?弗获辞此难。”稼穑愈是艰难辛苦,愈见诗人躬耕意志之深沉坚定。“襟颜”指胸襟和面颜;诗人是在为自由的生活、为劳动的成果而开心。诗人不仅是一位农民,还是一位为传统文化所造就的士人。他像一位农民那样站在自家屋檐下把酒开怀,可是他的心灵却飞越千载,尚友古人。结笔说:“但愿长如此,躬耕非所叹。”但愿长久地过这种生活,自食其力,自由自在,纵然躬耕辛苦,也无所怨尤。

诗人的心灵,经过深沉的省思,终归于圆融宁静。意志坚如金石。引发其对人生真谛的思考与总结。

注释:

[1]道:规律,道理。

[2]固:本来。

[3]端:第一,首要的。

[4]孰是都不营?而以求自安:如果弃之不经营,自己如何能心安?孰:如果。是:这,此,这里指衣服和食物。

[5]常业:农活。

[6]聊:勉强,尚且可以。

[7]肆:操作,干活。

[8]负:扛着,背着。

[9]饶:富饶、多的意思。

[10]获:能够。

[11]此难:这种艰难,这里指农耕生活。

[12]诚:的确。

[13]庶:大体上。

[14]异患:想不到的祸灾。

[15]干:侵犯。

[16]沮溺:即长沮和桀溺,孔子遇到的“耦而耕”的隐者。这里指隐士。

[17]躬:亲自。

Early Crop in the West Field

Of life there is a proper way:

Provide your food from day to day!

If you don’t do work of such kind,

How can you set at ease your mind?

If I work as usual in spring,

I know then what this year will bring.

At sunrise I do labor light;

I come back with my crop at night.

Frost will fall early in the hill,

So you can feel the evening chill.

Don’t peasants know their life is hard?

But they can’t leave their humble yard.

Tired will grow their four members old.

But there’s no evil unforetold.

After washing their hands and feet,

Under the eaves they drink wine sweet.

The hermits living long ago,

Shared with us the same weal and woe.

I will live so under the sky;

Over farmwork I’ll never sigh.

《庚戌岁九月中于西田获早稻》是晋宋之际文学家陶渊明在归隐田园时期创作的一首五言诗。此诗从对务农的认识开端,再总提岁功,点出秋获,接着写农作的辛苦,再转写避禄就耕的乐之所在,最后表示志耕不渝。全诗夹叙夹议,语言平淡而意蕴深远,通过对收稻感受的抒写,表现了作者的躬耕情怀,是颇能体现陶渊明归隐思想与躬耕实践的典型诗篇。

The poem “Early Crop in the West Field” is a five-line poem written by Tao Yuanming, a literary scholar of the Jin and Song dynasties, during his period of seclusion in the fields. The poem begins with the knowledge of farming, then mentions the yearly work and points out the autumn harvest, then writes about the hard work of farming, then turns to the joy of farming to avoid the labor, and finally expresses the unswerving ambition of farming. The poem is a typical poem reflecting Tao Yuanming’s thought of reclusion and practice of farming.

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