Tao Yuanming Poems: Farmwork (II)– 陶渊明《癸卯岁始春怀古田舍  (二首其二)》

癸卯岁始春怀古田舍
 (二首其二)

先师[1]有遗训,忧道不忧贫。

瞻望[2]邈[3]难逮[4],转欲志长勤[5]。

秉[6]耒[7]欢时务[8],解颜[9]劝农人。

平畴[10]交远风,良苗亦怀新[11]。

虽未量晨功,即事多所欣。

耕种有时息,行者无问津[12]。

日入相与归,壶浆劳近邻。

长吟掩柴门,聊[13]为陇亩民[14]。

该首为公元403年春所作。公元402年,进占荆州的桓玄又进一步攻陷京师,称太尉,总揽朝政。国事无望,使诗人坚定了躬耕自资的决心,并付诸实际行动。这首诗便是陶渊明亲自参加春耕之后的作品。“忧道不忧贫”诗人怀念先师孔子遗训,体悟其中不易,从而深感忧道之人的难得。暗指诗人想成为长沮、桀溺那样的隐士。“虽未量岁功,既事多所欣。”这一年的粮食并未进行估算,劳作就已经使我很开心,表达诗人劳作的喜悦之情。字里行间仍透露着对世道的关心和对清平盛世的向往。最后一句又归隐田园之中。昭示了一种“极高明而道中庸”的人生境界。

注释:

[1]先师:孔子。

[2]瞻望:敬仰。

[3]邈:遥远。

[4]逮(dài):企及,赶得上。

[5]长勤:长期劳动。

[6]秉:持,手里拿着。

[7]耒(lěi):犁柄,泛指农具。

[8]时务:及时应该做的事情,这里指农耕。

[9]解颜:面带笑容。

[10]畴(chóu):田野。

[11]怀新:麦苗生机勃勃。

[12]津:渡口,这里引申为长沮、桀溺的事,即归隐田园从事农耕。

[13]聊:姑且,尚且。

[14]陇亩民:田野之人,即农民。

Farmwork
(II)

Confucius told us to do properly

And not to worry about poverty.

How to follow our Master who sees far?

I can be busy as all farmers are.

In time I will do farm work, plough in hand,

Smiling, I talk with them who till the land.

Winds coming from afar caress the plain;

Tender shoots welcome spring to come again.

Though we know not how much we’ll reap this year,

Yet farm work in the field evokes our cheer.

At times when we are tired, we take a rest,

None come to inquire about east or west.

Coming back when the sun’s on the decline,

I’ll see my neighbors with a pot of wine.

Crooning a poem, then I close the door.

Content, what does a farmer need for more.

《癸卯岁始春怀古田舍二首》是晋宋之际文学家陶渊明的组诗作品。这两首诗通过对田间劳动的欢乐进行描绘,通过怀古言志,反映出“忧道不忧贫”的志向难以实现,表达了决心效仿前贤的思想,表现了对归耕田园的喜悦,远离污浊世俗的决心。第一首诗写一年之始的春耕,展现了田野清新宜人的景象,表达了诗人隐而不仕的乐趣,抒发了诗人内心的喜悦之情;第二首诗认为像孔子那样“忧道不忧贫”未免高不可攀,难以企及,不如效法长沮、桀溺洁身守节,隐居力耕。诗中对田园风光和田园生活的描写,十分生动传神,充满浓郁的情趣。

Two poems from the poem “Farmwork” are a group of poems by Tao Yuanming, a literary scholar of the Jin and Song dynasties. Through depicting the joy of working in the fields, these two poems reflect the difficulty of realizing the ambition of “worrying about the way but not about the poor” and express the determination to follow the example of previous sages. The first poem is about the spring plowing at the beginning of the year, showing the fresh and pleasant scenery of the fields, expressing the poet’s pleasure of seclusion rather than service, and expressing the poet’s inner joy; the second poem thinks that “worrying about the way but not about poverty” like Confucius is unattainable and unattainable, so it is better to follow the example of Chang Fei and Jie Dao and live in seclusion and cultivate. The descriptions of the idyllic scenery and the idyllic life in the poem are very vivid and evocative, full of rich sentiment.

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