Tao Yuanming Poems: For My Cousin Jingyuan – 陶渊明《癸卯岁十二月中作与从弟敬远》

癸卯岁十二月中作与从弟敬远

寝迹[1]衡门[2]下,邈与世相绝。

顾盼莫谁知,荆扉昼常闭。

凄凄岁暮风,翳翳[3]经日雪。

倾耳无希声,在目皓已洁[4]。

劲气侵襟袖,箪瓢[5]谢屡设。

萧索空宇中,了无一可悦。

历览千载书,时时见遗烈。

高操非所攀,谬[6]得固穷节。

平津[7]苟不由[8],栖迟讵为拙!

寄意一言外,兹契[9]谁能别?

公元403年,陶渊明39岁。这首诗即丁忧家居时之作。敬远是渊明的同祖弟,这首诗借赠敬远以自抒情怀。作诗当月,桓玄篡晋称楚,把晋安帝迁禁在陶渊明的故乡寻阳。在统治阶级互相争夺严重的险恶环境中,诗人只能强作忘情,自求解脱之道,诗就是在这种背景下写的。

“邈与世相绝”说的是诗人因隐居而远离尘世与之相隔绝,其实并非真正隔绝,暗指是被黑暗局势逼迫的。“了无一可悦”说的是房中户外竟没有一件事是可以开心的,以婉转诙谐之笔写出穷困之境。“栖迟讵为拙”说的是隐居躬耕岂算拙?从另一层面表现了诗人的坚贞与超脱。“寄意一言外”说的是我寄深意在言外,诗人把悲愤沉痛和坚强,变成闲淡乐观和诙谐,陶诗的意境,自然达到了登峰造极的深厚和醇美。

注释:

[1]寝迹:埋没行踪,指隐居。

[2]衡门:横木为门,指住处简陋。

[3]翳翳:昏暗的样子。

[4]皓已洁:即“已皓洁”,此处是将副词“已”置于两个形容词之间的用法。

[5]箪(dān)瓢:即箪食瓢饮。箪:用于盛饭的竹器。瓢:葫芦剖开一半制成的舀水器具。

[6]谬:错误,谦辞。

[7]平津:平坦的大路,引申为仕途。津:渡口,此处指道路。

[8]由:沿看,遵循。

[9]契:契合,符合,这里指志同道合。

For My Cousin Jingyuan

I’ve hidden in thatched cot secluded trace

From social life I stay far, far away.

Left and right I find no familiar face;

My wicket gate is closed e’en at midday.

The dreary wind mourns the end of the year;

From dawn till dusk falls a skyful of snow.

I listen but no sound reaches my ear;

I gaze but see dazzling light high and low.

Chilly air invades my collar and sleeves;

My table’s often bare of drink and food.

In empty rooms only solitude grieves.

What’s there to please?

Can there be nothing good?

I can peruse but books of olden days,

In which I find deeds worthy of memory.

I cannot climb the old time-honored ways,

Though wrongly praised for honest poverty.

If I can’t follow the broad common road,

Is it bad a rural life to renew?

I tell you I will not leave my abode,

Who can understand me better than you?

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