Tao Yuanming Poems: Home-Going-and-Coming Song – 陶渊明《归去来兮辞》

归去来[1]兮[2]辞

归去来兮,田园将芜胡不归?

既自以心为形役,奚[3]惆怅而独悲!

悟以往之不谏[4],知来者之可追[5]。

实迷途其未远,觉今是而昨非。

舟遥遥[6]以轻飏[7],风飘飘而吹衣。

问征夫以前路,恨[8]晨光之熹微。

乃瞻衡宇,载欣载[9]奔。

僮仆欢迎,稚子候门。

三径就[10]荒,松菊犹存。

携幼入室,有酒盈樽。

引壶觞以自酌,眄[11]庭柯以怡颜。

倚南窗以寄傲,审容膝[12]之易安。

园日涉以成趣,门虽设而常关。

策[13]扶老[14]以流憩[15],时矫首而遐观。

云无心以出岫,鸟倦飞而知还。

景翳翳以将入,抚孤松而盘桓[16]。

归去来兮,请息交以绝游。

世与我而相违,复驾言兮焉求?

悦亲戚之情话,乐琴书以消忧。

农人告余以春及,将有事于西畴。

或命巾车, 或棹孤舟。

既窈窕[17]以寻壑,亦崎岖而经丘。

木欣欣以向荣,泉涓涓而始流。

善万物之得时,感吾生之行休[18]。

已矣乎[19],

寓形[20]宇内[21]复几时?

曷[22]不委心[23]任去留[24]?

胡为乎遑遑[25]欲何之?

富贵非吾愿,帝乡不可期。

怀良辰以孤往,或植杖而耘耔。

登东皋以舒啸,临清流而赋诗。

聊乘化以归尽,乐夫天命复奚疑!

公元405年,陶渊明41岁。诗人从29岁起开始出仕,任官13年,一直厌恶官场,向往田园。在41岁时,最后一次出仕,做了80多天的彭泽令即辞官回家,以后再也没有出来做官。辞官后并作得此诗,以明心志。(辞前有序,说明了诗人出仕和自免去职的原因。本文直见正文,在此略提序。)

“归去来兮”开门见山,意为“回家去吧!”,第一段表现出诗人对人生的大彻大悟及归田之决心。在诗人的意识中,田园是人类生命的根,是自由生活的象征。他看穿了官场的污浊,不愿同流合污;认识到仕途即迷途,幸而践之未远,回头不迟;一种悔悟和庆幸之情溢于言表。

“乃瞻衡宇,载欣载奔”说的是诗人一看见家门,高兴得奔跑,尽显天真。第二段可以看出诗人归家后僮仆、孩子、妻子欣喜并做隆重欢迎以及诗人的愉悦之情。看见园中景色,使诗人欣慰于自己本性的犹存,写尽饮酒自乐和傲然自得的情景。有贤淑的妻子、温馨的家庭,表明知足常乐之态亦有孤介傲岸之势。

“归去来兮,请息交以绝游”说的是“回来呀,我要跟世俗之人断绝交游”。第三段借景抒情,诗人羡慕自然界的万物一到春天便生长茂盛,感叹自己的一生行将结束。

“已矣乎!寓形宇内复几时”说的是“算了吧!活在世上还能有多久?”。诗人否定了世俗政治社会,亦摒弃了宗教彼岸世界,要在自己的生活中求得人生之意义、实现人生之价值,让自己的生命始终顺应自然之道,是诗人的理想人生。诗人的人生态度是认真的、现世的,这是超越的境界,同时也是脚踏实地的。

注释:

[1]来:助词,无义。

[2]兮:语气词,无义。

[3]奚:为什么。

[4]谏:劝谏,挽回。

[5]追:追回,补救。

[6]遥遥:顺着水流飘荡的样子。

[7]飏(yánɡ):形容船在水中行驶的轻快。

[8]恨:遗憾。

[9]载……载……:一边……一边……

[10]就:接近,就要。

[11]眄(miǎn):斜着看,这里指随便看看。

[12]容膝:只容得下膝盖的地方,形容房子很小。

[13]策:拄着。

[14]扶老:手杖。

[15]流憩:到处走走歇歇。

[16]盘桓:徘徊,舍不得离开。

[17]窈(yáo)窕(tiǎo):形容山谷幽深曲折的样子。

[18]行休:生命将要结束。

[19]已矣乎:算了吧!此处语气助词连用,加强感叹。

[20]寓形:寄托生命。

[21]宇内,天地之间。

[22]曷(hé):何,为什么。

[23]委心:随心之自然,顺遂自心。

[24]去留:指人的生死。

[25]遑遑:心里忐忑不安的样子。

Home-Going-and-Coming Song

Let me go home!

Oh, why should I still roam

While my fields will be overgrown with weed,

why don’t I go where there is need?

Since I allowed my body to be master of my mind,

Why should my service be considered as unkind?

Let the bygone days be bygone!

The future’s still my own.

I’ve not gone far astray,

Now that I know I was wrong yesterday.

My boat and ripples sway;

My robe flaps with breeze light.

I ask my homeward way,

And wait to see twilight.

Seeing my cot with glee,

I’m afraid to be late.

My household welcomes me

With children at the gate.

The paths look like wasteland

But for chrysanthemum and pine.

I enter, holding my youngest son’s hand,

And see my cup brimming with wine.

I freely drink unoccupied

And gaze with smile at courtyard trees.

Standing by the window with pride,

In narrow rooms I feel at ease.

I walk in my garden with pleasure;

The gate is closed without a bar.

Wandering, staff in hand, at leisure,

I look upward and afar.

Carefree clouds leave the mountain crest,

Tired birds fly back towards their nest.

The sun is dimmed on its decline

And I caress a lonely pine.

I’m now at home,

In mundane world I’ll no more roam.

Since social life and I cannot agree,

What can I seek to do if I want to be free?

Talking with kins will bring me pleasure;

Reading and playing lute beguile my leisure.

I’m told by farmers of the coming of season best

For me to till the field in the west.

I drive a cart

Or row a boat.

To go across rugged hills I start,

Or on a winding stream I float.

With joy all flowers blow;

Slowly streams glide from fountains clear.

In time all the things move and grow;

To the end my life’s drawing near.

So let it be!

How long on earth can I do what I please?

Why not set my mind free?

Where should I go?

Why ill at ease?

I do not aspire to wealth or renown,

Nor go up to celestial spheres.

I only wish to wander on my own

Or leave my staff to till the field where weed appears.

I’ll go up eastern hill to sing

Or croon a verse by limpid stream.

I’ll return to the source of spring

And vanish with sunshine or moonbeam.

《归去来兮辞》是晋宋之际文学家陶渊明创作的抒情小赋。这篇文章作于作者辞官之初,是作者脱离仕途回归田园的宣言。全文叙述了作者辞官归隐后的生活情趣和内心感受,表现了他对官场的认识以及对人生的思索,表达了他洁身自好、不随世俗的精神情操。文章通过描写具体的景物和活动,创造出一种宁静恬适、乐天自然的意境,寄托了作者的生活理想。语言朴素,辞意畅达,匠心独运而又通脱自然,感情真挚,意境深远,有很强的感染力。结构安排严谨周密,散体序文重在叙述,韵文辞赋则全力抒情,二者各司其职,相为表里,成“双美”之势。

The “Home-Going-and-Coming Song” is a lyrical essay written by Tao Yuanming, a literary scholar of the Jin and Song dynasties. It was written at the beginning of the author’s resignation from his official position and is a declaration of his return to the countryside from his official career. The essay describes the author’s interest in life and his inner feelings after he resigned from his official position and returned to seclusion, expressing his understanding of the officialdom and his thoughts on life, and expressing his spiritual sentiment of purity and non-conformity to the world. By describing specific scenes and activities, the essay creates a tranquil, peaceful and natural mood, which reflects the author’s ideal of life. The language is simple, the rhetoric is clear, the artistry is unique and natural, the feelings are sincere, the mood is far-reaching, and it is highly infectious. The structure is rigorous and thorough, with the prose preface focusing on the narrative and the rhyming diction fully lyrical, each in its own way, making a “double beauty”.

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