Tao Yuanming Poems: In Reply to Liu Chaisang 陶渊明《和刘柴桑》

和刘柴桑

山泽久见招,胡事乃踌躇?

直为亲旧故,未忍言索居[1]。

良辰入奇怀,挈杖还西庐。

荒途[2]无归人,时时见废墟。

茅茨[3]已就治,新畴[4]复应畲。

谷风转凄薄,春醪解饥劬[5]。

弱女[6]虽非男[7],慰情良胜无。

栖栖[8]世中事,岁月共相疏。

耕织称其用,过[9]此奚所须?

去去[10]百年外[11],身名同翳如[12]。

公元409年,陶渊明45岁。此诗是陶渊明为回答刘柴桑邀请他隐居庐山而作。这是一首和诗,诗人闲话家常,回答友人刘遗民的问题,并对其表示安慰和劝勉之意。

开篇乃兴来之笔,以新创一问一答形式。“良辰入奇杯”指良辰美景入胸怀。“入”还与下句形成鲜明的方向感,暗指诗人未忘怀现实的衰败。“茅茨已就治,新畴复应畲”说的是简陋的茅屋已修葺,还需治理新垦田,指明诗人未忘却世事,在力所能及的范围内做着本分的事——传授门生。“栖栖世中事,岁月共相疏”说的是世间之事多忙碌,岁月已使人们彼此越来越远,是极好的警世之句。

注释:

[1]索居:独自生活在一个地方。

[2]途:道路。

[3]茅茨(cí):茅草屋。《诗经·小雅·甫田》:“如茨如梁。”茨:屋盖。已就治:已经修补整理好。就,成功。

[4]新畴:新开垦出来的田地。

[5]劬(qú):疲乏,劳累。

[6]弱女:古代人家生了女孩就开始酿酒,随即就埋藏在山坡上,等到出嫁的时候再挖出来饮用。这里借指为薄酒。

[7]男:与之相对应,是醇酒的意思。

[8]栖栖:忙碌不安的样子。

[9]过:超过,除……以外。

[10]去去:不断地逝去,指时间的流逝。

[11]百年外:人死后。

[12]翳(yì)如:湮灭,暗淡。

In Reply to Liu Chaisang

Hills and lakes attract me for long.

Should I stay away from their song?

It’s for my kinsmen near and dear

That nowhere else I would appear.

Fine morning enters curious breast,

Cane in hand, I head for Cot West.

Along the way no passers-by

But ruined huts arrest the eye.

I have repaired my thatched cot

And plought new furrows in my plot.

When valley wind turns chill at first,

I drink spring wine to quench my thirst.

A daughter cannot help as man

But she will comfort as she can.

The court affairs seem far away

From us with each year and each day.

I plough and weave enough for me;

From other needs I am carefree.

A hundred years will come to end,

Then life and fame with death will blend.

《和刘柴桑》是晋宋之际文学家陶渊明创作的五言诗。此诗赞美了好友刘程之回归自然、耕织自足的生活态度,流露了作者安于隐遁、不慕名利的情趣。诗在结构上可分为三层。前四句为第一层,以问答的句式代刘程之剖白心迹,追述往日企盼山泽而徘徊官场的苦衷;中间十句为第二层,以己度人,摹写刘程之归隐生活,与好友共话田园;后六句为第三层,即事议论,感慨世情,更多地表达自己的见解,既是对友人的安慰和劝勉,也是自我排解。全诗语言朴素,平白如话,娓娓道来,亲切感人,给人一种情真意切、平易随和之感。

A poem in five lines written by Tao Yuanming, a literary scholar of the Jin and Song dynasties. The poem praises his friend Liu Chengzhi’s attitude of returning to nature and cultivating and weaving for himself, and reveals the author’s interest in seclusion and lack of fame and fortune. The structure of the poem can be divided into three layers. The first four lines are the first layer, in the form of questions and answers, in which Liu Chengzhi confesses his heart and recalls his past hardships of looking forward to the mountains and wandering the officialdom; the middle ten lines are the second layer, in which Liu Chengzhi’s life in seclusion is imitated and he talks with his friend about the fields and gardens; the last six lines are the third layer, in which he discusses the matter and laments the world, expressing more of his own opinions, both as a comfort and exhortation to his friend and as a self-examination. The language of the poem is simple, as plain as words, and it speaks in an intimate and touching way, giving people a sense of sincere and easy-going.

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