Tao Yuanming Poems: Qian Stream Revisited – 陶渊明《乙巳岁三月为建威参军使都经钱溪》

乙巳岁三月为建威参军使都经钱溪

我不践斯境,岁月好已积。

晨夕看山川,事事悉[1]如昔。

微雨洗高林,清飙矫[2]云翮[3]。

眷彼品物[4]存,义风[5]都未隔。

伊[6]余何为者,勉励从兹役?

一形[7]似有制[8],素襟不可易。

园田日[9]梦想,安得久离析?

终怀在归舟[10],谅哉宜霜柏。

公元405年,陶渊明41岁。年初,陶渊明担任江州刺史刘敬宣(建威将军)的参军,三月奉差使去京都建康,这诗是途中泊舟于钱溪(今安徽省贵池东梅根港)所作。“事事悉如昔”指事事未变如往昔,说明诗人曾经来过这里,旧地重游。“素襟不可易”指平素的胸襟是不可改变的。诗人触景生情、寓情于景的手法来表达想要归隐田园的意念,暗指退出仕途的决心。“谅哉宜霜柏”指霜中松柏自挺立,表达诗人像霜后的松柏一样,保持着高尚的情操和品德。

注释:

[1]悉:都。

[2]矫:抬起,举起。

[3]翮(hé):指代鸟的翅膀。

[4]品物:万物。

[5]义风:适宜的风。

[6]伊:语气助词,无意义。

[7]一形:一身,即诗人本身。

[8]制:为……所制,限制。

[9]日:天天,每天。

[10]归舟:逯(lù)本作(逯钦立对《陶渊明集》的注释)“壑(hè)舟”。壑舟:深谷激流中的小舟,喻流逝不停的时间。语出《庄子·大宗师》:“夫藏舟于壑,藏山于泽,谓之固矣。然而夜半有力者负之而走,昧者不知也。”后以“壑舟”比喻在不知不觉中事物不停地变化、迁移。

Qian Stream Revisited

How long have I not visited here?

Days have piled up into a year.

Dawn to dusk I see hills and streams,

Scenes are revived as in old dreams.

In fine rain steeped the branches high,

Wind-borne birds ripple cloudy sky.

That’s what a familiar eye sees,

Not saddened by a heartfelt breeze.

Why should I plod along the way,

Tied down to my post all the day?

My body seems bound up in view,

But I’ve a heart none could subdue.

I miss my rural life and song.

Could I be kept away for long?

In homing boat I’d be carefree,

Oh, as a frost-proof cypress tree.

《乙巳岁三月为建威参军使都经钱溪》是晋宋之际文学家陶渊明创作的一首五言诗。此诗作于奉命使都途中,主要通过对途中景物的描绘,抒发思乡之情和归隐之念。全诗结构整齐,前半写景,后半感怀,两半匀称,界限分明,在构思上颇具特色。

This poem is a five-line poem written by Tao Yuanming, a literary scholar in the Jin and Song dynasties. The poem was written on the way to the capital on orders, mainly through the depiction of the scenery on the way, expressing the feelings of homesickness and the idea of returning to seclusion. The whole poem is neatly structured, with the first half writing about the scenery and the second half feeling nostalgic, the two halves are well proportioned and clearly defined.

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