Tao Yuanming Poems: Return to Nature  (I) 陶渊明《归园田居  (五首其一)》

归园田居
 (五首其一)

少[1]无适俗韵,性本爱丘山。

误落尘网中,一去[2]三十年,

羁鸟恋旧林,池鱼思故渊。

开荒南野际,守拙[3]归园田。

方宅十余亩,草屋八九间。

榆柳荫后檐,桃李罗堂前。

暧暧[4]远人村,依依[5]墟里[6]烟。

狗吠深巷中,鸡鸣桑树颠。

户庭无尘杂,虚室有余闲。

久在樊笼[7]里,复得返自然。

公元405年,陶渊明在江西彭泽辞官后,回到家中作《归园田居》诗一组,共五首,描绘田园风光的美好与农村生活的淳朴愉悦,以及归隐后的心情。对于诗人来说,人生的道路只有两条任他选择:一条是出仕做官,有俸禄保证其生活,可是必须违心地与世俗同流合污;另一条是归隐田园,靠躬耕劳动维持生存,这样可以做到任性存真、坚持操守。

“误落尘网中”指错误地落入仕途罗网,反映诗人对官场生活的厌倦。“守拙归园田”指依着拙朴的心性归耕田园。诗人以近景和远景来投射出乡村的幽静逍遥与上层社会的虚伪欺诈形成鲜明对比。“复得返自然”总算又归返林山;诗人三次着重强调归田之心,体现诗人精神上的追求是自由和独立的。

注释:

[1]少:年轻的时候。

[2]去:离开。

[3]守拙:坚守节操。

[4]暧暧:朦胧的样子。

[5]依依:轻柔缓慢地升起。

[6]墟里:村庄。

[7]樊笼:鸟笼,这里比喻官场生活。

Return to Nature
 (I)

While young, I was not used to worldly cares,

And hills became my natural compeers.

But by mistake I fell in mundane snares,

And was thus entangled for thirteen years.

A caged bird would long for wonted wood,

And fish in ponds for native pools would yearn.

Go back to till my southern field I would,

To live a rural life why not return?

My plot of ground is but ten acres square;

My thatched cottage has eight or nine rooms.

In front I have peach trees here and plums there;

Over back eaves willows and elms cast glooms.

A village can be seen in distant dark,

Where plumes of smoke rise and waft in the breeze.

In alley deep a dog is heard to bark,

And cocks crow as if over mulbery trees.

Into my courtyard no one should intrude,

Nor rob my private rooms of peace and leisure.

After long, long official servitude,

Again in nature I find homely pleasure.

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