Tao Yuanming Poems: Written on the 1st Day of the 5th Moon in the Same Rhymes as Secretary Dai 陶渊明《五月旦作和戴主簿》

五月旦作和戴主簿

虚舟纵逸棹,回复遂无穷。

发岁[1]始俯仰[2],星纪[3]奄[4]将中[5]。

南窗罕悴[6]物,北林荣且丰。

神萍[7]写[8]时雨,晨色奏[9]景风[10]。

既来孰不去?人理固有终。

居常待其尽,曲肱[11]岂伤冲[12]?

迁化成夷险,肆志无窊[13]隆。

即事如已高,何必升华嵩?

此诗写于公元413年,陶渊明49岁。诗人从时光的流逝、季节的循环往复和景物的荣衰更替,而体悟到人生有始亦必有终的道理。

“虚舟纵逸棹”说的是轻舟上飞快地划着船桨,暗指时光流逝日月如梭。接着写五月时的自然万物:南窗和北林的花草树木都生机盎然;雨神及时降下甘雨,清晨吹拂和暖的南风。“既来孰不去?”说的是人既生来谁能不死?诗人在这里明知故问,揭示自然规律,有来必有去;人生亦如此,有生必有死。指引人们坦然地面对,安心地生活。体现出诗人的人生观,心灵是自由的。“即事如以高”指倘若能对眼前事物达观视之,又何必访仙祈求长生。意指诗人归隐之后的决心,及怡然自得的人生态度。

注释:

[1]发岁:开岁,一年的开头。

[2]俯仰:形容时间短暂。

[3]星纪:古代星岁纪年法中十二星次之一。此处指癸丑年。

[4]奄:通“淹”,忽然、突然的意思。

[5]将中:将要到年中,指五月。

[6]悴:憔悴,这里是枯萎的意思,指干枯的植物。

[7]神萍:神话中的雨师,主管人间的降雨。一作“萍光”,一作“神渊”。

[8]写:同“泻”,下大雨的意思。

[9]奏:通“凑”,聚集,凝结。

[10]景风:古代指祥和的风。

[11]曲肱(ɡōnɡ):即“曲肱而枕之”,就是把胳膊弯曲当做枕头。

[12]冲:空虚,淡泊名利,这里指道的最高境界。

[13]窊(wā):指低处的坑洼。

Written on the 1st Day of the 5th Moon in the Same Rhymes as Secretary Dai

Time flies like an empty boat with swift oar;

Four seasons circulate and reappear.

Looking back, the New Year’s Day is no more;

Now we come near the middle of the year.

By southern window there’re no withered trees;

In northern grove we find leaves lush and green.

Morning seems beautified by summer breeze,

And timely rain washes the country clean.

Who comes on earth shall go, such is our fate,

And what begins will end, such is our life.

Though changeless, for the changeful we may wait;

Content with poverty won’t lead to strife.

Our life is full of weal and woe,

On ups and downs our mind can’t rest.

If we don’t care for what is high or low,

Why should we climb to mountain crest?

《五月旦作和戴主簿》是晋宋之际文学家陶渊明的诗作。此诗表现了诗人一贯的豁达态度。诗人从时光的流逝、季节的回环往复和景物的荣衰更替,而体悟到人生有始亦必有终的道理,认为人们只要认识到了这种自然的规律,不必去求仙访道,便可以逍遥任性,随顺自然,无喜无忧,以终天年。全诗语言通俗,思想通达。

The poem “Written on the 1st Day of the 5th Moon in the Same Rhymes as Secretary Dai” is a poem by Tao Yuanming, a literary scholar of the Jin and Song dynasties. This poem shows the poet’s usual open-minded attitude. From the passage of time, the cycle of seasons and the change of scenery, the poet understands that life has a beginning and an end, and believes that as long as people realize this natural law, they do not need to seek immortality and visit the Tao, they can be free to follow nature and end their days without joy or worry. The language of the poem is common and the thought is clear.

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