Chinese Name: 蒙古族
English Name: The Mongolic people, the Mongol (Mongolian) nationality
Languages: Mongolic language 蒙古语, Chinese 汉语
Total population: 5.98*106 (China mainland 2022)
Distribution: Mainly distributed in Inner Mongolia, Xinjiang, etc.
The Mongolic people 蒙古族 is a traditional nomadic people mainly distributed in East Asia. They are one of the ethnic minorities in China and the main ethnic group in Mongolia. In addition to distribute in China, the Mongolian people are also distributed in Russia and other Asian and European countries, and the Ewenki and Tu people are sometimes considered to be branches of the Mongolian people.
The history of the Mongolic people
The official beginning of Mongolic history originated from Genghis Khan 成吉思汗 unify all of the Mongolian tribes and the establishment of the Great Mongolian State in the early 13th century. In 1271 Kublai Khan 忽必烈 established the Yuan dyansty 元朝 in China. In 1368, the Yuan Dynasty fell, and the remaining forces retreated to the Mongolic steppe. After the 1911 Revolution 辛亥革命 in China, some Mongolian ministries merged into the Soviet Union 苏联 in 1944, some established Mongolia, and some became China’s Inner Mongolia.
The religion of the Mongolic people
Shamanism is an ancient primitive religion of the Mongolics. Shamanism worships a variety of natural and ancestral deities. Until the Yuan Dynasty 元朝, shamanism dominated Mongolian society, and it still had an important influence on the Mongolian royal family, princes, nobles and folk. Although Buddhism replaced the status of shamanism in the court later, the influence of Buddhism was limited to the upper Mongolian ruling class, and most Mongolians still believed in shamanism.
The Cultures of the Mongolic people
Mongolian medicine 蒙医
Mongolian medicine is a traditional medicine gradually formed and developed by the Mongolic people in the long-term medical practice. It has a long history and rich content. It is a summary of the experience and wisdom of the Mongolic people in fighting against diseases, and it is also a medical science with distinctive national and regional characteristics. In the diagnosis and treatment of diseases, it has the characteristics of low dosage, good curative effect, economical and simple and so on.
Mongolic medicine explains the physiological and pathological phenomena of the human body based on the relationship between the three roots of “Heyi 赫依”, “Hila 希拉” and “Badaga 巴达干”. The so-called “Heyi” refers to the power of various physiological functions. All thinking, language, action and functional activities of various organs are controlled by it. If the function of “Heyi” is abnormal, it will lead to weakened viscera functions, manifested as abnormal consciousness, insomnia, forgetfulness, etc.
“Sheila” means fiery. The body’s body temperature, the heat energy of various tissues and organs, and the excitement of the spirit are all in the role of “Sheila”. “Sheila” is too high, and various febrile diseases will occur, such as bitter mouth, sour vomit, and manic expression. “Badaga” refers to a mucus-like substance in the body that has the characteristics of coldness. In addition to the general cold symptoms, the dysfunction of “Badaga” can easily lead to the stagnation of water and the increase of various secretions.
Mongolian long folk song 蒙古族的长调民歌
Mongolian herdsmen created long-tuned folk songs in the long-term nomadic labour to express their emotions and express nomadic life. In the long-term circulation process, long-tune folk songs have formed a complete system, including grassland pastoral songs, hymns, homesickness songs, wedding songs, love songs and other types of songs.
The long-tune folk songs have a wide range, of beautiful and smooth tunes, and the melody lines are mostly wavy, with ups and downs, showing the natural environment of the grasslands. The rhythm is long, with many accents and few words. The declarative language rhythm, the lyrical long rhythm, and the decorative “Nogula” rhythm are cleverly combined to form the rhythm of the long folk song.
Mongolian Sihu 蒙古族四胡
The Mongolian Sihu is one of the most characteristic Mongolian musical instruments. The high-pitched four-hu sound is bright and crisp and is mostly used for solo, ensemble, and ensemble. The mid-bass Sihu has a rich and mellow tone, is good at playing lyrical music, and mainly accompanies the Horqin national rap art Uliger and Haolaibao.
The Mongolian Sihu culture has a rich accumulation, rich expressiveness, self-contained techniques, melodious and simple melody, and is an outstanding musical creation of the Mongolian people who are engaged in semi-agricultural and semi-pastoral production methods. It has high academic research value in Mongolian history, culture, folklore, and Sino-foreign cultural exchanges.
Mongolian dance 蒙古族舞蹈
Folk dances in China’s Inner Mongolia Autonomous Region and areas inhabited by Mongolians in Jilin 吉林, Heilongjiang 黑龙江 and other provinces. The dance has a cheerful rhythm and strong and powerful movements, with shoulder shaking, arm rubbing and horse stance being the most distinctive features. The dance culture of Mongolian people is closely related to their hunting and nomadic life.