Tao Yuanming Poems: Wine-drinking Song  (XI) – 陶渊明《饮酒  (二十首其十一)》

饮酒
 (二十首其十一)

颜生称为仁,荣公言有道。

屡空[1]不获年[2],长饥至于老。

虽留身后名,一生亦枯槁。

死去何所知,称心固为好。

客[3]养千金躯,临化消其宝。

裸葬何必恶,人当解意表。

“颜生称为仁,荣公言有道”指人称颜回是仁者,又说荣公有道心,而颜回穷困并且短命,荣公挨饿至终身,虽然留名百世,但一生却憔悴甚至清贫,死后什么也不知道了,应在生前称心自任。诗人通过对人生的思考,表达了其人生观与处世态度。诗人认为,那种为追求身后的名声而固穷守节、苦己身心的行为是不值得的;同样,那种为希望能得到长寿而认真保养贵体的行为也是不值得的。诗人主张人生当称心适意,不必有所顾忌,在当今时代亦不必有所追求。“人当解意表”指返归自然才是真,尽显真意。

注释:

[1]屡空:指颜回生活穷困。

[2]年:长寿。

[3]客:人生如过客,引申为人生短暂。

Wine-drinking Song
 (XI)

Yan[1] was wise in his day;

Rong[2] knew to go his way.

But Yan did not live long,

Rong was poor all along.

They had posthumous fame.

What’s the use of vain name?

Did they know after death

How to enjoy their breath?

Value your body high!

It’s no use when you die.

Better buried unclad,

If people felt less sad.

注释:

[1]Yan and Rong were disciples of Confucius.

[2]Yan and Rong were disciples of Confucius.

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